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User error: "post_type" is an invalid render array key in Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children() (line 98 of core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Element.php).
Drupal\Core\Render\Element::children(Array, 1) (Line: 451)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 122)
__TwigTemplate_4ff7071c960e0f797b3ee2320b543f57->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
twig_render_template('themes/custom/nepc/templates/content/node.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('node', Array) (Line: 480)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 61)
__TwigTemplate_767b0d1152bec790f8f4c13a7e14822a->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
twig_render_template('themes/custom/nepc/templates/views/views-view-unformatted.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view_unformatted', Array) (Line: 480)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 85)
__TwigTemplate_8d5213db195e71f26663a3a670ef0299->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
twig_render_template('themes/custom/nepc/templates/views/views-view.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('views_view', Array) (Line: 480)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 133)
__TwigTemplate_e0a4e5da6072a11411421d4ba13acefd->block_content(Array, Array) (Line: 171)
Twig\Template->displayBlock('content', Array, Array) (Line: 99)
__TwigTemplate_e0a4e5da6072a11411421d4ba13acefd->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
twig_render_template('themes/custom/nepc/templates/block/block.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('block', Array) (Line: 480)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array) (Line: 493)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 262)
__TwigTemplate_e8a5f3c96c8837f79c893db70a9aed6d->block_content(Array, Array) (Line: 171)
Twig\Template->displayBlock('content', Array, Array) (Line: 129)
__TwigTemplate_e8a5f3c96c8837f79c893db70a9aed6d->block_page(Array, Array) (Line: 171)
Twig\Template->displayBlock('page', Array, Array) (Line: 42)
__TwigTemplate_e8a5f3c96c8837f79c893db70a9aed6d->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
twig_render_template('themes/custom/nepc/templates/layout/page.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('page', Array) (Line: 480)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 475)
Drupal\Core\Template\TwigExtension->escapeFilter(Object, Array, 'html', NULL, 1) (Line: 107)
__TwigTemplate_74ff6cebd0ae43ca73b7fbfe4570505c->doDisplay(Array, Array) (Line: 394)
Twig\Template->displayWithErrorHandling(Array, Array) (Line: 367)
Twig\Template->display(Array) (Line: 379)
Twig\Template->render(Array) (Line: 38)
Twig\TemplateWrapper->render(Array) (Line: 39)
twig_render_template('themes/custom/nepc/templates/layout/html.html.twig', Array) (Line: 348)
Drupal\Core\Theme\ThemeManager->render('html', Array) (Line: 480)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->doRender(Array, ) (Line: 240)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->render(Array) (Line: 158)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\{closure}() (Line: 627)
Drupal\Core\Render\Renderer->executeInRenderContext(Object, Object) (Line: 159)
Drupal\Core\Render\MainContent\HtmlRenderer->renderResponse(Array, Object, Object) (Line: 90)
Drupal\Core\EventSubscriber\MainContentViewSubscriber->onViewRenderArray(Object, 'kernel.view', Object)
call_user_func(Array, Object, 'kernel.view', Object) (Line: 111)
Drupal\Component\EventDispatcher\ContainerAwareEventDispatcher->dispatch(Object, 'kernel.view') (Line: 186)
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handleRaw(Object, 1) (Line: 76)
Symfony\Component\HttpKernel\HttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 58)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\Session->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\KernelPreHandle->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 28)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ContentLength->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 191)
Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->fetch(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 128)
Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->lookup(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 82)
Drupal\page_cache\StackMiddleware\PageCache->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 50)
Drupal\ban\BanMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 48)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\ReverseProxyMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\NegotiationMiddleware->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 36)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\AjaxPageState->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 51)
Drupal\Core\StackMiddleware\StackedHttpKernel->handle(Object, 1, 1) (Line: 704)
Drupal\Core\DrupalKernel->handle(Object) (Line: 19)

Teresa Ghilarducci

The New School of Social Research

Teresa Ghilarducci is a labor economist and nationally-recognized expert in retirement security.

An economics professor at The New School, Teresa serves as the Bernard L. and Irene Schwartz Chair in economic policy analysis and director of SCEPA, the Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis that focuses on economic policy research and outreach.

Ghilarducci joined The New School in 2008 after 25 years as a professor of economics at the University of Notre Dame and 10 years as director of the school’s Higgins Labor Research Center.  As an author, her most recent book - When I’m Sixty Four: The Plot Against Pensions and the Plan to Save Them – investigates the loss of pensions on older Americans and proposes a comprehensive system of reform. Her previous books include Labor's Capital: The Economics and Politics of Employer Pensions, winner of an Association of American Publishers award in 1992, and Portable Pension Plans for Casual Labor Markets, published in 1995.

NEPC Publications

NEPC Review: Redefining Teacher Pensions: Strategically Defined Benefits for New Teachers and Fiscal Sustainability for All (Center for American Progress, September 2011)

Raegen T. Miller
Christian Weller
Redefining Teacher Pensions: Strategically Defined Benefits for New Teachers and Fiscal Sustainability for All
Buyer Beware: The Risks to Teacher Effectiveness from Changing Retirement Benefits

Two recent studies from the Center for American Progress raise a variety of issues about teacher pension plans. The debate centers around changing from the traditional defined-benefit plans to cash balance plans, where the teacher and the school contribute to a fund as a constant, defined, percentage of pay every pay period.

Both reports rely on bodies of evidence concerning: (1) how a typical teacher’s productivity (measured by a teacher’s impact on test scores) changes over her or his career, and (2) how teachers’ decisions to enter, stay, or retire from teaching depend on annual changes in the value of their pension plan. Unfortunately, there is limited evidence on these two questions, and conclusions about these matters are cloudy.  Shifting to a new pension design to save money — as California is contemplating — may have exactly the opposite effect; bolstering current plans may prove the more economical and practical approach.

While this review raises some concerns, these two new reports perform a service — particularly when read together — in raising issues in this developing area of policy inquiry. Moreover, both reports appropriately acknowledge the limited nature of our knowledge in this area and the small number of quality research reports that are available.